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Cichorium intybus

Cichorium intybus L.

Cichorium intybus L. var. foliosum Hegi

Cichorium intybus L. var. sativum (Bisch.) Janch.

Chicory

KingdomPlantaePlants, but not fungi, lichens, or algae (from Stearn’s Botanical Latin)
SubkingdomTracheobiontaVascular plants—plants with a “circulatory system” for delivering water and nutrients
DivisionMagnoliophytaFlowering plants, also known as angiosperms
ClassMagnoliopsidaDicotyledons—plants with two initial seed leaves
SubclassAsteridaeA large class that encompasses asters
OrderAsteralesFlowering plants with a central disk flower and surrounding petals, like daisies
FamilyAsteraceaeThe aster family, which also includes daisies and sunflowers; from the Greek ἀστήρ, “star,” for the star-shaped flowers
GenusCichoriumThe Latinized version of an Arabic name for one species of this genus from the Greek kichore, which usually carries a common name of chicory or endive
SpeciesintybusDerived from Egyptian tybi, “January,” the month that this species was customarily eaten

About plant names...

Common chicory is native to Europe, but it was introduced to North America and Australia, where it has become widespread.

Identification: Plants are 24-48" (60-121 cm) high, with tough grooved stems. Stems branch sparsely, looking unruly and sometimes lying almost sideways. Broken branches ooze a milky sap. Flowers are about 1" (2.5 cm) wide, blue, violet, or sometimes white. Each petal tip has five serrations. The stigmas, small hairlike structures in the center, are curled at the top and dark blue. The leaves remind me of dandelion leaves.

Cichorium intybus (Chicory)

Chicory (Chichorium intybus). A, portion of flowering branch; B, basal leaf (runcinate-pinnatifid); C, median longitudinal section through a head, showing the insertion of the flowers; D, individual flower; E, fruit (ripened ovary), showing the persistent pappus (calyx) of short scales. From a scan at the Southwest School of Botanical Medicine. Original source unknown.

Edibility: Roots, after being baked and ground, have long been used as a coffee additive or even substitute, for example, during the Great Depression in America. Chicory root contains inulin, a starchlike substance just sweet enough to serve as a sweetener in some applications. (Chicory root itself is very bitter, due to the presence of several bitter agents.) Long term use of chicory may be deleterious to night vision, but this has not been confirmed.

Online References:

Cichorium intybus on Wildflowers, Ferns & Trees of Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, and Utah

Cichorium intybus on Missouriplants.com

Cichorium intybus on Wikipedia

Cichorium intybus on Plants for a Future, a resource and information centre for edible and otherwise useful plants

Cichorium intybus at Illinois Wildflowers

Cichorium intybus on Bjørn Rørslett/NN's Nature Photography site (photographed in ultraviolet light)

Cichorium intybus on the Virginia Tech Weed Identification Guide

Cichorium intybus at Purdue University's Center for New Crops and Plants Products

Cichorium intybus on Kansas Wildflowers and Grasses

Cichorium intybus on SEINet—the Southwest Environmental Information Network

Cichorium intybus (Chicory)

7/16/2012 · Walk near Rtes 40, 119 Intersection, Groton, MA

Cichorium intybus (Chicory)

8/28/2007 · Valley of the Rogue State Park, OR
≈ 4½ × 3" (11 × 7.9 cm) ID is uncertain

Cichorium intybus (Chicory)

7/7/2012 · Gibbet Hill, Groton, MA
≈ 11 × 7" (27 × 18 cm)

Cichorium intybus (Chicory)

7/8/2016 · Dunstable Rural Land Trust, Dunstable, MA

Cichorium intybus (Chicory)

7/21/2013 · Gibbet Hill, Groton, MA
≈ 3 × 3" (8.3 × 7.5 cm)

Cichorium intybus (Chicory)

7/7/2012 · Gibbet Hill, Groton, MA
≈ 5 × 3½" (12 × 9.2 cm)

Cichorium intybus description by Thomas H. Kent, last updated 5 Oct 2016.

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Cichorium intybus (Chicory)

7/7/2012 · Gibbet Hill, Groton, MA
≈ 6 × 4" (15 × 10 cm)

Cichorium intybus (Chicory)

7/7/2012 · Gibbet Hill, Groton, MA
≈ 5 × 3½" (13 × 9.2 cm)

Cichorium intybus (Chicory)

Nashoba Conservation Land on Mt. Lebanon Rd · 7/16/2009 · Mt. Lebanon St, Pepperell, MA
≈ 10 × 15" (24 × 37 cm)

Cichorium intybus (Chicory)

7/7/2012 · Gibbet Hill, Groton, MA
≈ 5 × 3½" (13 × 9.2 cm)

Cichorium intybus (Chicory)

9/17/2012 · Blood Dragon Ravine, Jeff Smith Trail, Pepperell, MA
≈ 2½ × 3½" (6.8 × 8.9 cm)

Cichorium intybus (Chicory)

8/25/2009 · Nashua River Rail Trail, East Pepperell, MA
≈ 7 × 11" (18 × 27 cm) ID is uncertain

Cichorium intybus (Chicory)

6/17/2010 · Mt. Lebanon St., Pepperell, MA
≈ 3½ × 2½" (9.8 × 6.6 cm)

Cichorium intybus (Chicory)

6/24/2010 · Nashua River Rail Trail, East Pepperell, MA ID is uncertain

Cichorium intybus (Chicory)

8/25/2009 · Nashua River Rail Trail, East Pepperell, MA
≈ 4½ × 3" (11 × 7.9 cm) ID is uncertain

Cichorium intybus (Chicory)

7/27/2016 · Michaux State Forest, Caledonia State Park, Fayetteville, PA
≈ 5 × 3½" (13 × 9.2 cm)

Cichorium intybus (Chicory)

Nashoba Conservation Land on Mt. Lebanon Rd · 7/16/2009 · Mt. Lebanon St, Pepperell, MA
≈ 3 × 4½" (8.3 × 12 cm)

Range:

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